Machining Process

1.Machining:

Machining is the process of material removal in which a cutting tool removes unwanted material from a work piece to produce desired shape and size.

2.Lathe Operations:

2.1.General Turning

                2.1.a.Facing

                2.1.b.Turning

                2.1.c.Internal Turning

2.2.Grooving

                2.2.a. ID Groove

                2.2.b. OD Groove

                2.2.c. Face Groove

2.3.Threading

                2.3.a. OD Threading

                2.3.b. ID Threading

                                2.3.b.1. Straight

  1. Right Hand
  2. Single Start
  3. Multi Start
  4. Left Hand

                                2.3.b.2. Taper

2.4.Hole Making

                2.4.a. Centering

                2.4.b. Drilling

                2.4.c. Reaming

3.Difference Between Turning Machines And Milling Machines

S.No TURNING MACHINES MILLING MACHINES
1 Work Piece Rotates Work Piece Remains Stationery
2 Tool is stationary and removes the material . Tool rotates and material removal is done.
3 Has only Two Axis – X, Z. Has three axis- X,Y,Z.
4 It has single point cutting tool It has multipoint cutting tool

4.Turning

A machining process in which a single-point tool removes material from the surface of a rotating work piece.

4.1. External operations :

4.1.1. Turning – A single-point turning tool moves axially, along the work piece side, thereby removing material to form different features. These features are typically machined with small depth of cut and multiple passes are made until the end diameter is reached.

4.1.2. Facing – A single-point turning tool moves radially, along work piece end, thereby removing a thin layer of material to provide a smooth flat surface.

4.1.3. Grooving – A single-point turning tool moves radially, into workpiece side, thereby cutting a groove equal in width to the cutting tool. Multiple cuts can be made to form grooves larger than the tool width.

4.1.4. Cut-off (parting) – A single-point cut-off tool moves radially, into workpiece side, and continues until the center or inner diameter of the workpiece is reached, thereby parting or cutting off a section of the workpiece.

4.1.5. Thread cutting – A single-point threading tool, typically with a 60 degree pointed nose, moves axially, along the side of the workpiece, cutting threads into the outer surface. The threads can be cut to a specified length and pitch and may require multiple passes to be formed.

4.2. Internal operations

4.2.1. Drilling – A drill enters the workpiece axially through the end and cuts a hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool

4.2.2. Reaming – A reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. A reamer is a multi-point tool that has many flutes, which may be straight or in a helix. Reaming is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish.

4.2.3. Tapping – A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. The tap is selected based on the major diameter and pitch of the threaded hole.

4.2.4. Boring – A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along the internal surface of an existing hole to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions. The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool, which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head.

4.2.5. Counterboring – A counterbore tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a bolt, to sit flush with the workpiece surface. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to guide it straight into the existing hole.

4.2.6. Countersinking – A countersink tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to a cone-shaped opening. Countersinking is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a screw, to sit flush with the workpiece surface. Common included angles for a countersink include 60, 82, 90, 100, 118, and 120 degrees.

5.Milling

5.1.End milling – An end mill makes either peripheral or slot cuts, determined by the step-over distance, across the workpiece in order to machine a specified feature, such as a profile, slot, pocket, or even a complex surface contour. The depth of the feature may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes.

5.2. Chamfer milling – A chamfer end mill makes a peripheral cut along an edge of the workpiece or a feature to create an angled surface, known as a chamfer. This chamfer, typically with a 45 degree angle, can be machined on either the exterior or interior of a part and can follow either a straight or curved path.

5.3. Face milling – A face mill machines a flat surface of the workpiece in order to provide a smooth finish. The depth of the face, typically very small, may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes.

5.4. Drilling – A drill enters the workpiece axially and cuts a hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool. A drilling operation can produce a blind hole, which extends to some depth inside the workpiece, or a through hole, which extends completely through the workpiece.\

5.5. Boring – A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along an internal surface to form different features. The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool, which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head. Boring is commonly performed after drilling a hole in order to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions.

5.6. Counterboring – Ancounterbore tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a bolt, to sit below the surface of a part. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to guide it straight into the existing hole.

5.7. Countersinking – A countersink tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to a cone-shaped opening. Countersinking is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a screw, to sit flush with the workpiece surface. Common included angles for a countersink include 60, 82, 90, 100, 118, and 120 degrees.

5.8. Reaming – A reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. A reamer is a multi-point tool that has many flutes, which may be straight or in a helix. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish.

5.9. Tapping – A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. The tap is selected based on the major diameter and pitch of the threaded hole. Threads may be cut to a specified depth inside the hole (bottom tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through tap).

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