Standardization may be defined as adoption (selection) of generally accepted procedures, dimensions, materials, parts, principles, workplace arrangements for designing a product or facility. Standardization helps in reducing the varieties in size of similar components to facilitate assembly at the site to make the components interchangeable between different manufacturers. In prefabrication plant, standardization mainly focuses on making standards in manufacturing processes, materials, fits and tolerance. Standardization makes it is possible to manufacture interchangeable parts.
The established standards are recorded for the future reference in the form of formulae, descriptions, details, drawings and models. Standardization helps for easy communication between the supplier and customer of prefabrication parts and also it reduces the conflict between supplier and customer.
In the prefabrication industry, some of the standardized components are doors, stairs, windows, walls, floors, roof trusses, columns, beams and even entire building. Co-operation required from designers, suppliers and builders is essential for standardizing the prefabricated components. Prefabricated parts are suitable only for large volume required prefabricated components with a minimum number of standard sizes. Standardization is nothing but making the use of guidelines for the production of interchangeable parts. It helps to sell the products in global marketing. Standardization not only helps the manufacturer but also benefited by customers in terms of choice, availability and interchangeability. It establishes the limits within which the products or components must fall. Then only the parts will be useful, if the parts fall outside the limit, then the parts are said to be not standard/interchangeable.
Quality control and testing are used to measure the achievement of standards. Standardization promotes clear communication within and among the organization, it can also lower the cost of the product, labour and repair. National and international organizations play an important role for establishing the standardization. Standardization promotes the chances for globalization of business.
Standard implies the component or part fit for any particular use. It helps the organization to focus on their attention on delivering excellence to customer and compete globally. Components are standardized based on size, weight, function, shape, material.
Levels of standardization:
Compatibility (Designed to work with another system without modification), interchangeability (Capability of the part replacing the other without the need for attention and adjustments), commonality (Degree of similarity between parts or system that allows interchangeability), reference (A source of information is used for future reference).
Advantages of standardization:
- Able to reduce the number of verities of components, need to maintain large inventories.
- Lowering the installation and starting cost, down time, maintenance cost.
- Enabling the interchangeability of parts.
- Improving the design with less effort, communication.
- Provides opportunity to use specialized machines.
- Reducing the erection and assembly time, additional alterations.
- Increase the chances for global marketing, productivity.