- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Third law of thermodynamics
A definite area where some thermodynamic process takes place
Anything external to system
A surface which separates the system from its surroundings. It may be real or imaginary, fixed or moving.
Only energy transfer takes place
Mass and energy transfer takes place
No interaction with surroundings
Example for isolated system:
Property which depends on mass and size
Property which is independent of mass
Examples for extensive property:
Entropy, Enthalpy, Internal Energy, length etc.
Examples for intensive property:
Specific volume, specific entropy, specific enthalpy, specific internal energy, temperature, specific heat etc.
A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if it satisfies the conditions of Mechanical equilibrium, Chemical equilibrium, Thermal equilibrium.
Quasi static process:
A process is said to be quasi static when it is carried out in such way that, at every instant the system’s deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium is very small.
Temperature remains constant
No unbalanced forces between system and its surroundings
No phase change or chemical reaction
If anything which can be represented in graph by means of point in the sense, then it is point function.
If anything which cannot be be represented in graph by means of point, but can be represented by means of area means then it is path function.
Examples of point function:
Pressure, volume, temperature, internal energy
Examples of path function:
Initial states of the system can be achieved by reversing the process
The initial state of the system cannot be restored without any changes in system and its surroundings
The sum of internal energy and flow energy is called as enthalpy.
Entropy is function of quantity of heat, the property of the system which decides the percentage of heat that can be converted into work.
Entropy is property where as enthalpy is energy